尤其是那首she’s lost control.

A powerful powerful performance by Sam Riley. The black and white is
used harmoniously with the pace of the film and really captures the
essence of a man trying to have control for a future. It is so easy to
be caught up in the heat of emotion and the moment, but what is
important is your ability to control it once it becomes part of your
life. Ian Curtis desperately tries to overcome all the situational
difficulties, but every time he thinks he can do it he is defeated by
the disease he cannot control. His suicide is the culmination of all his
struggles. 裡面的音樂也很棒,尤其是那首she’s lost control.

Measuring Power Values

Device manufacturers must provide a component power profile in
/frameworks/base/core/res/res/xml/power_profile.xml.

To determine values for power profiles, use hardware that measures the
power being used by the device and perform the various operations for
which information is needed. Measure the power use during those
operations and compute the values (deriving differences from other
baseline power uses as appropriate).

As the goal of a power profile is to estimate battery drain
appropriately, power profile values are given in current (amps). The
Android framework multiplies the current by the time for which the
subsystem was active and computes the mAh value, which is then used to
estimate the amount of battery drained by the application/subsystem.

Devices with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi
controllers
running Android 6.0 and higher can provide additional power values
obtained from chipset data.

High-energy-consuming metallurgical enterprises, such as electrolytic
aluminum and large-scale chemical industries, often have their own power
plants due to their high load. In normal operation, the power generated
by the captive power plant can meet production requirements. Generally
speaking, the power generation price of the captive power plant does not
include the cost of long-distance transmission, so the power cost
generated is lower. This is the root of many current metallurgical
enterprises in China. But this does not mean that these companies can
completely separate from the operation of the big grid. Large power
grids provide safe backup power for high-energy-consuming enterprises
that have captive power plants.

Devices with heterogeneous CPUs


The power profile for devices with CPU cores of heterogeneous
architecture must include the following additional fields:

  • Number of total CPUs for each cluster (expressed in
    cpu.clusters.cores).
  • CPU speeds supported by each cluster.
  • Active CPU power consumption for each cluster.

To differentiate between active CPU power consumption and supported CPU
speeds for clusters, append the cluster number to the name of the array.
Cluster numbers are assigned in the order of CPU cores in the kernel
device tree. For example, in a heterogeneous architecture that has two
(2) clusters with four (4) cores:

  • cluster0 consists of cpu0-3
  • cluster1 consists of cpu4-7

The Android framework uses these CPU core numbers when it reads
statistics from the sysfs files in:
/sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu<number>/cpufreq/stats.

Example of cluster CPUs and speeds:

<array name="cpu.active.cluster0">
<value>200</value>
<value>300</value>
<value>400</value>
</array>
<array name="cpu.speeds.cluster0">
<value>600000</value>
<value>800000</value>
<value>1200000</value>
</array>

<array name="cpu.active.cluster1">
<value>400</value>
<value>500</value>
<value>600</value>
</array>
<array name="cpu.speeds.cluster1">
<value>800000</value>
<value>1200000</value>
<value>1400000</value>
</array>

Similar to high-energy-consuming enterprises, newly built industrial
parks in many developing countries often have their own rotating power
generation equipment due to lack of electricity support. For example,
emerging Southeast Asian countries such as Bangladesh and Myanmar, with
the increase in the cost of human resources in China’s manufacturing
industry, many labor-intensive enterprises have moved to these regions.
However, due to the long-term lack of infrastructure, power supply in
industrial parks is generally a major consideration in the planning
stage.

Power values


The following table describes available power value settings. To view
the sample file in AOSP, see
power_profile.xml.

Name Description Example Value Notes
none Nothing 0  
screen.on Additional power used when screen is turned on at minimum brightness. 200mA Includes touch controller and display backlight. At 0 brightness, not the Android minimum which tends to be 10 or 20%.
screen.full Additional power used when screen is at maximum brightness, compared to screen at minimum brightness. 100mA-300mA A fraction of this value (based on screen brightness) is added to the screen.on value to compute the power usage of the screen.
bluetooth.active Additional power used when playing audio through Bluetooth A2DP. 14mA  
bluetooth.on Additional power used when Bluetooth is turned on but idle. 1.4mA  
wifi.on Additional power used when Wi-Fi is turned on but not receiving, transmitting, or scanning. 2mA  
wifi.active Additional power used when transmitting or receiving over Wi-Fi. 31mA  
wifi.scan Additional power used when Wi-Fi is scanning for access points. 100mA  
dsp.audio Additional power used when audio decoding/encoding via DSP. 14.1mA Reserved for future use.
dsp.video Additional power used when video decoding via DSP. 54mA Reserved for future use.
camera.avg Average power use by the camera subsystem for a typical camera application. 600mA Intended as a rough estimate for an application running a preview and capturing approximately 10 full-resolution pictures per minute.
camera.flashlight Average power used by the camera flash module when on. 200mA  
gps.on Additional power used when GPS is acquiring a signal. 50mA  
radio.active Additional power used when cellular radio is transmitting/receiving. 100mA-300mA  
radio.scanning Additional power used when cellular radio is paging the tower. 1.2mA  
radio.on Additional power used when the cellular radio is on. Multi-value entry, one per signal strength (no signal, weak, moderate, strong). 1.2mA Some radios boost power when they search for a cell tower and do not detect a signal. Values can be the same or decrease with increasing signal strength. If you provide only one value, the same value is used for all strengths. If you provide two values, the first is used for no-signal, the second value is used for all other strengths, and so on.
cpu.speeds Multi-value entry that lists each possible CPU speed in KHz. 125000KHz, 250000KHz, 500000KHz, 1000000KHz, 1500000KHz The number and order of entries must correspond to the mA entries in cpu.active.
cpu.idle Total power drawn by the system when CPUs (and the SoC) are in system suspend state. 3mA  
cpu.awake Additional power used when CPUs are in scheduling idle state (kernel idle loop); system is not in system suspend state. 50mA Your platform might have more than one idle state in use with differing levels of power consumption; choose a representative idle state for longer periods of scheduler idle (several milliseconds). Examine the power graph on your measurement equipment and choose samples where the CPU is at its lowest consumption, discarding higher samples where the CPU exited idle.
cpu.active Additional power used by CPUs when running at different speeds. 100mA, 120mA, 140mA, 160mA, 200mA Value represents the power used by the CPU rails when running at different speeds. Set the max speed in the kernel to each of the allowed speeds and peg the CPU at that speed. The number and order of entries correspond to the number and order of entries in cpu.speeds.
cpu.clusters.cores Number of cores each CPU cluster contains. 4, 2 Required only for devices with heterogeneous CPU architectures. Number of entries and order should match the number of cluster entries for the cpu.active and cpu.speeds. The first entry represents the number of CPU cores in cluster0, the second entry represents the number of CPU cores in cluster1, and so on.
battery.capacity Total battery capacity in mAh. 3000mAh  

Whether it is due to the company’s own cost considerations or the
insufficiency of the infrastructure itself, grid companies have provided
safe backup power for these high energy-consuming users. What is more
important is that the high demands of continuous production by
metallurgical and chemical companies determine the necessity of such a
standby. When a captive power plant jumps or mass dumps, these users
will draw a lot of power from the grid, or, conversely, send large
amounts of excess power to the grid. Without the protection of large
grids, we know that these microgrid systems will immediately collapse in
the event of unbalanced power.

Devices with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi controllers


Devices with Bluetooth and Wi-Fi controllers running Android 6.0 and
higher can be polled for the following energy use data:

  • Time spent transmitting (in milliseconds).
  • Time spent receiving (in milliseconds).
  • Time spent idle (in milliseconds).

Time values are not measured but are instead available from respective
chip specifications and must be explicitly stated (for details, see
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular
usage).
To convert time values to power values, the framework expects four (4)
values for each controller in a resource overlay at
/frameworks/base/core/res/res/values/config.xml.

Controller

Values/Resource Names

Description

Bluetooth

android:integer/config_bluetooth_idle_cur_ma

Average current draw (mA) of the Bluetooth controller when idle.

android:integer/config_bluetooth_active_rx_cur_ma

Average current draw (mA) of the Bluetooth controller when receiving.

android:integer/config_bluetooth_tx_cur_ma

Average current draw (mA) of the Bluetooth controller when transmitting.

android:integer/config_bluetooth_operating_voltage_mv

Average operating voltage (mV) of the Bluetooth controller.

Wi-Fi

android:integer/config_wifi_idle_receive_cur_ma

Average current draw (mA) of the Wi-Fi controller when idle.

android:integer/config_wifi_active_rx_cur_ma

Average current draw (mA) of the Wi-Fi controller when receiving.

android:integer/config_wifi_tx_cur_ma

average current draw (mA) of the Wi-Fi controller when transmitting.

android:integer/config_wifi_operating_voltage_mv

Average operating voltage (mV) of the Wi-Fi controller.

Grid companies certainly do not provide these users with backup free of
charge. In China, electric power companies charge fixed fees for
enterprises or industrial parks that have captive power plants according
to reserve capacity. The greater the reserve capacity, the higher the
fee charged, and the proportion of growth is not linear, and it is
likely to be of an exponential nature. When the user generates a power
supply problem on its own, whether it is a power generation fault or
abnormal load removal, if the power grid exceeds the safety reserve
capacity, the power grid company will cut off the contact with the user
in a very short time. At the same time, the backup of the grid to the
users is asymmetrical, that is, the standby for the Internet and the
backup for the next network are often different. This is because the
grid itself also needs to consider safety and stability issues. Big
fluctuations, especially online fluctuations, are a huge and stable risk
to the grid.

How to ensure that these high-energy-consuming enterprises or industrial
parks balance their power needs? How to reduce the backup demand of
these users to the grid as much as possible, so as to further reduce the
charges for the reserve capacity of the grid and reduce the cost of
energy for the enterprise? These are issues of general concern.